Violation Type:NXDOMAIN Hijacking (1st Degree)

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Violation Type
NXDOMAIN

NXDOMAIN Hijacking (1st Degree)

Violation InstanceViolator
Virgin Media Internet Service/NXDOMAINVirgin Media Internet Service


An ISP operates a recursive DNS resolver for the benefit of its users. It configures the resolver to hijack what would ordinarily be NXDOMAIN results. Instead it returns data such that a connecting web browser will receive a page operated by an ISP or partner thereof. Usually the page will offer search results and may attempt to raise advertising revenue.

Operation of a DNS resolver in this manner constitutes a violation of the technical standards for the operation of DNS. Some ISPs may allow accountholders to disable this system and receive NXDOMAIN, but this is not a valid excuse.

NXDOMAIN hijacking shall be considered 1st degree when the hijacking occurs only for the ISP's own resolver, and not when alternate resolvers are used.

NXDOMAIN hijacking shall be considered 2nd degree, which is more severe, when the ISP hijacks NXDOMAIN responses regardless of their origin, even from resolvers they do not operate. The 2nd degree implies NLREMIT.